Filter by type:

The demographic benefit of international migration : hypothesis and application to Middle Eastern and North African contexts

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
Çağlar ÖZDEN and Maurice SCHIFF (eds), International migration, economic development and policy, Washington, DC : World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, pp. 161-182
Publication year: 2007

The view that international migration has no impact on the size of world population is a sensible one. But the author argues, migration from developing to more industrial countries during the past decades may have resulted in a smaller world population than the one which would have been attained had no international migration taken place for two reasons: most of recent migration has been from high to low birth-rate countries, and migrants typically adopt and send back to their home countries models and ideas that prevail in host countries. Thus, migrants are potential agents of the diffusion of demographic modernity, that is, the reduction of birth rates among nonmigrant communities left behind in origin countries. This hypothesis is tested with data from Morocco and Turkey where most emigrants are bound for the West, and Egypt where they are bound for the Gulf. The demographic differentials encountered through migration in these three countries offer contrasted situations-host countries are either more (the West) or less (the Gulf) advanced in their demographic transition than the home country. Assuming migration changes the course of demographic transition in origin countries, the author posits that it should work in two opposite directions-speeding it up in Morocco and Turkey and slowing it down in Egypt. Empirical evidence confirms this hypothesis. Time series of birth rates and migrant remittances (reflecting the intensity of the relationship kept by emigrants with their home country) are strongly correlated with each other. Correlation is negative for Morocco and Turkey, and positive for Egypt. This suggests that Moroccan and Turkish emigration to Europe has been accompanied by a fundamental change of attitudes regarding marriage and birth, while Egyptian migration to the Gulf has not brought home innovative attitudes in this domain, but rather material resources for the achievement of traditional family goals. Other data suggest that emigration has fostered education in Morocco and Turkey but not in Egypt. And as has been found in the literature, education is the single most important determinant of demographic transition among nonmigrant populations in migrants’ regions of origin. Two broader conclusions are drawn. First, the acceleration of the demographic transition in Morocco and Turkey is correlated with migration to Europe, a region where low birth-rates is the dominant pattern. This suggests that international migration may have produced a global demographic benefit under the form of a relaxation of demographic pressures for the world as a whole. Second, if it turns out that emigrants are conveyors of new ideas in matters related with family and education, then the same may apply to a wider range of civil behavior.

Migration mediterranean report 2007

Mediterranean Migration: 2006-2007 Report / Migrations méditerranéennes: Rapport 2006-2007

Books
Fargues P.
EUI-RSCAS e-publication, Florence 2007, xxii + 411 p
Publication year: 2007

Les mouvements de personnes en Méditerranée : des migrations aux mobilités

Miscellaneous
Fargues P. & H. Le Bras
Strates Vol.13 (2007), Conseil National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris
Publication year: 2007

Among the four freedoms that the European Union tries to enhance in its relations with its neighbourhood, the freedom of movement (inter­national migrations) is the most badly treated and accepted. Yet, the Barcelona + 10 Summit, which took place in Novembre 2005, put the stress on the necessity to open a space of mutual cooperation in the field of international migrations. Actually, the Euroopean Union has become the most attractive region in the world for the migrants, with a net inward flow of 2.8 million migrants in 2004 (1.2 in the United States). This tendency is most likely to strengthen with the rapid ageing of the European labour force. In spite of the growing globalisation of the migration routes, the European Union exerts mainly its attraction on its geographical peripheries. Taking account of the high number of young people in the Mediterranean countries, such a situation is based on an obvious North South strategic complementarity. Nevertheless, this complementarity is hampered by national policies mainly based on the idea that the migrants try to leave their country of origine for ever. Such a representation is not correct : more and more migrants are involved in a process of permanent mobility between the north and the south bank of the Mediterranean. Taking account of this tendency, the authors underline the idea that the international migration could increase the professionnal skills of the migrants. From this point of view, they propose to make the needs of the EU and of the countires of origin meet by associating the mobility of the migrants and their trai­ning in order to enhance their level of education.

Southern and eastern Mediterranean governments and the integration of their expatriates in Europe

Miscellaneous
Fargues P.
Canadian Diversity, vol. 5 / No 1, winter 2006, Montreal, pp. 110-113
Publication year: 2006

Policy responses in MENA countries of transit for migrants: an analytical framework for policy-making

Book Chapter
Cassarino J.-P. and Fargues, P.
Ninna NYBERG SORENSEN (ed.), Mediterranean Transit Migration, DIIS, Copenhagen, 2006, 101-107
Publication year: 2006

Mediterranean Migration - Report 2005

Books
Fargues P.
[Migration Policy Centre]; CARIM Research Report; 2005
Publication year: 2006

International migration in the Arab region : trends and policies

Miscellaneous
Fargues P.
United Nations Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Development in the Arab Region; 2006/09; [Migration Policy Centre]
Publication year: 2006

Afrique du Nord et Moyen-Orient : des migrations en quête d’une politique

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
n° spécial 1936-2006, 4/2006 : 1017-29.
Publication year: 2006

La distinction pays émetteurs/pays récepteurs tend à s’effacer au sud de la Méditerranée. Si les pays pétroliers deviennent plus restrictifs vis-à-vis de l’immigration, nombre d’autres pays doivent se transformer en pays d’accueil, ou de transit, d’une immigration mondialisée. Partout se pose donc le problème des politiques nécessaires : au niveau international pour réunir les questions de l’émigration et de l’immigration, au niveau national pour intégrer les populations nouvelles.

Women in Arab countries: challenging the patriarchal system?

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Reproductive Health Matters, Vol. 13, Number 25:161-5.
Publication year: 2005

Progress in the empowerment of Arab women was found to be low in a 2002 report. Yet Arab women’s status is not reflected in continuing high fertility, which in 2000 had dropped sharply in one generation to 3.4. This paper discusses why fertility decline could nevertheless have taken place in the Arab countries. Islam has not stood in the way of fertility decline, as Iran and Algeria show. From the mid- 1970s to 1980s, subsidised consumption through oil wealth redistribution reduced the cost of children, and social conservatism kept married women out of the labour force, both of which promoted higher fertility. The early stages of fertility decline were mainly due to longer length of education of girls, rising female age at first marriage, e.g. 28 in urban Morocco and 29 in Libya, and entry into the labour force of young, single women. There is also a growing population sub-group of never-married young women. Collapsing oil prices and structural adjustment reduced household resources and became an effective fertility regulation factor. Girls born since the 1950s have not only been educated longer than their mothers, but also their fathers, which increases their authority. These factors, and women’s activism and civil and political lobbying for the reform of personal status now underway in a number of Arab countries, could all challenge the patriarchal system. /// D’après un rapport de 2002, les femmes arabes progressent lentement vers l’autonomisation. Pourtant, leur statut ne va pas de pair avec le maintien d’une fécondité élevée: en une génération, celle-ci a été ramenée à 3,4 en 2000. L’Islam n’a pas fait obstacle au déclin de la fécondité, ainsi que le montrent l’Iran et l’Algérie. À partir de la moitié des années 70 et pendant les années 80, les subventions à la consommation provenant de la redistribution des revenus pétroliers ont réduit le coût de l’éducation des enfants, et le conservatisme social a maintenu les femmes mariées à la maison, deux mesures qui ont stimulé la fécondité. La fécondité a commencé à diminuer principalement du fait de l’allongement des études des filles, ce qui a retardé l’âge du premier mariage, par exemple 28 ans pour les Marocaines urbaines et 29 pour les Libyennes, et l’entrée sur le marché de l’emploi des célibataires. Les jeunes célibataires sont aussi plus nombreuses. La chute des prix pétroliers et l’ajustement structurel ont régulé efficacement la fécondité. Les filles nées depuis les années 50 sont plus instruites que leur mère, mais aussi que leur père, ce qui accroît leur autorité. Ces facteurs, ainsi que l’activisme des femmes et les pressions pour la réforme du statut personnel en cours dans plusieurs pays arabes pourraient saper le système patriarcal. /// En un informe del 2002 se encontraron muy pocos avances en la empoderación de las mujeres árabes. No obstante, el estatus de las mujeres árabes no se refleja en la continua fertilidad elevada, que en 2000 había disminuido marcadamente a 3.4 en una generación. En este artículo se examinan las causas de esta disminución en los países árabes. Islam no ha obstaculizado el descenso de la fertilidad, como se observa en Irán y Argelia. Desde mediados de los años setenta hasta los ochenta, el consumo subsidiado mediante la redistribución de la riqueza petrolera redujo el costo de tener hijos, y el conservadurismo social mantuvo a las mujeres casadas fuera de la fuerza de trabajo; ambos factores promovieron una fertilidad elevada. Las etapas iniciales de la disminución de la fertilidad se debieron principalmente a una duración más larga de la educación de las niñas, un ascenso en la edad de las mujeres al primer matrimonio, p. ej., 28 en Marruecos urbano y 29 en Libia, y la entrada de las mujeres jóvenes solteras en la fuerza de trabajo. Existe, además, un creciente subgrupo demográfico de mujeres jóvenes que nunca se han casado. Los bajos precios del petróleo y el ajuste estructural disminuyeron los recursos hogareños y constituyen un factor eficaz en la regulación de la fertilidad. Las niñas nacidas a partir de los años cincuenta han recibido una educación más larga que ambos padres, lo cual aumenta su autoridad. Estos factores, y el activismo y cabildeo civil y político de las mujeres con el fin de reformar su estatus personal, actualmente en curso en varios países árabes, podrían retar el sistema patriarcal.

Women in Arab countries: challenging the patriarchal system?

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Reproductive Health Matters, Vol. 13, Number 25:161-5
Publication year: 2005

Progress in the empowerment of Arab women was found to be low in a 2002 report. Yet Arab women’s status is not reflected in continuing high fertility, which in 2000 had dropped sharply in one generation to 3.4. This paper discusses why fertility decline could nevertheless have taken place in the Arab countries. Islam has not stood in the way of fertility decline, as Iran and Algeria show. From the mid- 1970s to 1980s, subsidised consumption through oil wealth redistribution reduced the cost of children, and social conservatism kept married women out of the labour force, both of which promoted higher fertility. The early stages of fertility decline were mainly due to longer length of education of girls, rising female age at first marriage, e.g. 28 in urban Morocco and 29 in Libya, and entry into the labour force of young, single women. There is also a growing population sub-group of never-married young women. Collapsing oil prices and structural adjustment reduced household resources and became an effective fertility regulation factor. Girls born since the 1950s have not only been educated longer than their mothers, but also their fathers, which increases their authority. These factors, and women’s activism and civil and political lobbying for the reform of personal status now underway in a number of Arab countries, could all challenge the patriarchal system. /// D’après un rapport de 2002, les femmes arabes progressent lentement vers l’autonomisation. Pourtant, leur statut ne va pas de pair avec le maintien d’une fécondité élevée: en une génération, celle-ci a été ramenée à 3,4 en 2000. L’Islam n’a pas fait obstacle au déclin de la fécondité, ainsi que le montrent l’Iran et l’Algérie. À partir de la moitié des années 70 et pendant les années 80, les subventions à la consommation provenant de la redistribution des revenus pétroliers ont réduit le coût de l’éducation des enfants, et le conservatisme social a maintenu les femmes mariées à la maison, deux mesures qui ont stimulé la fécondité. La fécondité a commencé à diminuer principalement du fait de l’allongement des études des filles, ce qui a retardé l’âge du premier mariage, par exemple 28 ans pour les Marocaines urbaines et 29 pour les Libyennes, et l’entrée sur le marché de l’emploi des célibataires. Les jeunes célibataires sont aussi plus nombreuses. La chute des prix pétroliers et l’ajustement structurel ont régulé efficacement la fécondité. Les filles nées depuis les années 50 sont plus instruites que leur mère, mais aussi que leur père, ce qui accroît leur autorité. Ces facteurs, ainsi que l’activisme des femmes et les pressions pour la réforme du statut personnel en cours dans plusieurs pays arabes pourraient saper le système patriarcal. /// En un informe del 2002 se encontraron muy pocos avances en la empoderación de las mujeres árabes. No obstante, el estatus de las mujeres árabes no se refleja en la continua fertilidad elevada, que en 2000 había disminuido marcadamente a 3.4 en una generación. En este artículo se examinan las causas de esta disminución en los países árabes. Islam no ha obstaculizado el descenso de la fertilidad, como se observa en Irán y Argelia. Desde mediados de los años setenta hasta los ochenta, el consumo subsidiado mediante la redistribución de la riqueza petrolera redujo el costo de tener hijos, y el conservadurismo social mantuvo a las mujeres casadas fuera de la fuerza de trabajo; ambos factores promovieron una fertilidad elevada. Las etapas iniciales de la disminución de la fertilidad se debieron principalmente a una duración más larga de la educación de las niñas, un ascenso en la edad de las mujeres al primer matrimonio, p. ej., 28 en Marruecos urbano y 29 en Libia, y la entrada de las mujeres jóvenes solteras en la fuerza de trabajo. Existe, además, un creciente subgrupo demográfico de mujeres jóvenes que nunca se han casado. Los bajos precios del petróleo y el ajuste estructural disminuyeron los recursos hogareños y constituyen un factor eficaz en la regulación de la fertilidad. Las niñas nacidas a partir de los años cincuenta han recibido una educación más larga que ambos padres, lo cual aumenta su autoridad. Estos factores, y el activismo y cabildeo civil y político de las mujeres con el fin de reformar su estatus personal, actualmente en curso en varios países árabes, podrían retar el sistema patriarcal.

Temporary Migration: Matching Demand in the EU with Supply from the MENA

Temporary Migration: Matching Demand in the EU with Supply from the MENA

Miscellaneous
Fargues P.
CARIM Analytical and Synthetic Notes AS2005/11 (7 p.),
Publication year: 2005
Making Migration Serve Global Security

Making Migration Serve Global Security

Miscellaneous
Fargues P.
The Wold Bank, Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE), Amsterdam, May 2005, 27 p.
Publication year: 2005

This paper advances that international migration from developing to more developed countries during the last decades may have resulted in a smaller global world population than the one which would have been attained had no international migration taken place. Because most recent migration has been from high to low birth rates countries, and migrants send back to their home countries models and ideas that prevail in host countries, international migration would have contributed to the demographic transition in the former. In particular, emigration would have fostered education, i.e. the single most important determinant of the demographic transition, among non-migrant populations in migrants’ regions of origin. This framework is tested with data from three major countries of origin of migrants: Egypt, Turkey and Morocco.

Making Migration Serve Global Security

Miscellaneous
Fargues P.
The Wold Bank, Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE), Amsterdam, May 2005, 27 p.
Publication year: 2005
Integration policies: the view from Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Countries

Integration policies: the view from Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Countries

Miscellaneous
Fargues P.
e-publication, 128 p.
Publication year: 2005
integration policies

Integration policies: the view from Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Countries

Miscellaneous
Fargues P.
e-publication, http://carim-south.eu/carim/material/Integration%202005%20-%20Description%20EN.pdf, 128 p.
Publication year: 2005
How any migrants from, and to, Mediterranean countries of the Middle East and North Africa

How any migrants from, and to, Mediterranean countries of the Middle East and North Africa

Miscellaneous
Fargues P.
[Migration Policy Centre]; [CARIM-South]; CARIM Analytic and Synthetic Notes; 2005/16
Publication year: 2005

How any migrants from, and to, Mediterranean countries of the Middle East and North Africa

Miscellaneous
Fargues P.
[Migration Policy Centre]; [CARIM-South]; CARIM Analytic and Synthetic Notes; 2005/16
Publication year: 2005
The Global Demographic Benefit of International Migration: A Hypothesis

The Global Demographic Benefit of International Migration: A Hypothesis

Miscellaneous
Fargues P.
paper presented at the Vth Annual Mediterranean Meeting, EUI, Florence (28 p.)
Publication year: 2004

This paper advances that international migration from developing to more developed countries during the last decades may have resulted in a smaller global world population than the one which would have been attained had no international migration taken place. Because most recent migration has been from high to low birth rates countries, and migrants send back to their home countries models and ideas that prevail in host countries, international migration would have contributed to the demographic transition in the former. In particular, emigration would have fostered education, i.e. the single most important determinant of the demographic transition, among non-migrant populations in migrants’ regions of origin. This framework is tested with data from three major countries of origin of migrants: Egypt, Turkey and Morocco.

Reappraising Migration on the EU-Turkey Agenda

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
N. TOCCI (ed), A. EVIN (ed), Towards Accession Negotiations: Turkey's Domestic and Foreign Policy Challenges Ahead, EUI-RSCAS, 2004
Publication year: 2004

Arab Migration to Europe: Trends and Policies

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
International Migration Review,. Winter 2004, Vol. 38, No. 4: 1348-71
Publication year: 2004

Growing Arab migration to Europe is a likely scenario for the coming years, poorly prepared for by current policies. The paper examines three reasons for this scenario: new patterns of family-building in Arab countries; aging in Europe; and the emergence of a new demand for migrant labor. While the ongoing establishment of free trade may increase migratory pressures, government policies remain potentially conflicting — on the Arab side, optimizing the economic benefits drawn from emigrants and reviving their sense of belonging to their culture of origin; on the European side, restricting further immigration and integrating former migrants in the host society and culture.

The Mediterranean: a Gulf or a Bridge? Population and Migration in the Euro-Med Process

Miscellaneous
Fargues P.
Kalamazoo College, Center for Western European Studies, 2003
Publication year: 2003

Terminating Marriage

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
Nicholas S. HOPKINS (ed), The New Arab Family , 2003, 247-272, Cairo Papers in Social Sciences, Vol 24/1-2
Publication year: 2003

Préface

Miscellaneous
Fargues P.
Marie LADIER (ed), Jean-Claude CHESNAIS (ed), Population et politique en Iran. De la Monarchie à la République islamique , 2003, 171-196, Cahier de l’INED, No 150
Publication year: 2003

Population Studies

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
S. Joseph (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures, Brill, Leiden-Boston, pp. 321-25.
Publication year: 2003

La femme dans les pays arabes : vers une remise en cause du système patriarcal ?

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Population et Sociétés n°387, INED, Paris, 4 p
Publication year: 2003
The stark picture of human development in the Arab world painted in a report written for the United Nations by leading Arab researchers became the subject of impassioned debate in late summer 2002. They found that it was being seriously undermined by failings on three fronts: civil and political freedom, knowledge production and dissemination, and empowerment of women [1]. All—but especially the latter— are seen as the main factors of demographic transition, especially fertility reduction. Women’s status, therefore, should be reflected in continuing high fertility. But is that the case?

L’émigration en Europe vue d’Afrique du Nord et du Moyen-Orient

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Esprit n°300 : 125-43 (2003).
Publication year: 2003

L’Egypte au XXe siècle

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
Jean-Claude CHASTELAND and Jean-Claude CHESNAIS (eds), La population du Monde. Géants démographiques et défis internationaux , 2003, 171-196, Cahier de l’INED, No 149
Publication year: 2003

Family and Household in Mid-Nineteenth Century Cairo

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
Beshara DOUMANI (ed), Family History in the Middle East: Household, Property and Gender , 2003, 23-49
Publication year: 2003

The Current Demographic, Economic and Political Situation in the Countries of the Southern Mediterranean Rim

Miscellaneous
Fargues P.
Conference on Irregular Migration and the Dignity of Migrants : Co-operation in the Mediterranean Region – Athens 3-4 October 2001, Council of Europe, June 2002, pp. 29-40
Publication year: 2002

Syria’s demographic growth, an opportunity as much as a challenge

Miscellaneous
Fargues P.
The Syria Report, n°1, Novembre 2002, Paris, pp. 8-9
Publication year: 2002