Publication Types:

Demography and International Migration

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
Triandafyllidou A. Handbook of Immigration and Refugee Studies, Routledge, 41-53 9
Publication year: 2016

How can demography bring a specific response to the question on whether international migration is a « positive sum game »? This paper advances a daring argument: that international migration has contributed to contain the demographic explosion, more precisely that population movements from developing to more developed countries during the last decades have resulted in a smaller global world population than the one which would have been obtained had no international migration taken place. In other words, it argues that international migration has contributed to check the nightmare of world overpopulation. The mechanism through which international migration is hypothesised to play on global demography is simple: most migration during the period of demographic transition —a period when international differentials in birth rates are peaking—has been from high to low birth rates countries. Because international migrants adopt for themselves, and send back to their home countries, models and ideas that prevail in host countries, they are agents of the diffusion of demographic modernity. The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) offers a particularly interesting case in point for testing the hypothesis that migrants are potential vectors of demographic change. Several MENA countries witness an intense emigration, with emigrants bound either for the Gulf or for the West, according to countries of departure and time. With regard to demographic differentials encountered through migration, MENA thus offers contrasted situations: host countries of emigrants are sometimes less, sometimes more advanced in their demographic transition than their home countries. If the central hypothesis of the paper is true, then emigration from MENA countries will have modified the course of the demographic transition of origin countries of migrants in two opposite directions, according to places of destination: slowing it down where emigrants are destined to the Gulf and speeding it up where they emigrate to the West. The paper is divided into five sections. Section I examines the place of migration in demographic analysis. Section II proposes a general framework of interaction between migration and demographic change. Section III is a rapid overview of the well-documented side of this framework, i.e. the impact of migration on the demography of migrants. Section IV is a very first attempt to explore the other side of the framework, i.e. the impact of migration on the demography of non-migrants in countries experiencing significant rates of emigration, with MENA as an example. Section 5 offers a partial validation of the main hypothesis by comparing Morocco to Egypt.

Fargues_Venturini_2015

The Geography of Arab highly skilled migration

Book Chapter
Di Bartolomeo A. and P. Fargues 2015
Fargues & Venturini 2015, pp. 9-33.
Publication year: 2015

The countries of the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean (SEM) and those in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are crucial to the development of the world economy. Highly skilled migration to and from these regions is key to the recent socio-political transformations that have occurred across the world. Despite this, in the states concerned, skilled migration remains an underlying ‘issue of concern’, rather than at the top of political agendas, leading to a spectrum of unclear and uncoordinated legal and policy frameworks. Containing a series of thematic and country-specific overviews, this book highlights the specificity of each region, and identifies and analyses key demographic, economic, legal and political data – allowing for policy prescription. Skilled Migration, the ‘brain drain’, and its impact is an extensively debated phenomenon and this will be an essential companion for social scientists, policy-makers and development scholars.

Migration to the Gulf States: The Political Economy of Exceptionalism

Book Chapter
Fargues P. & F. de Bel-Air
Acosta Arcarazo D. & and Wiesbrock A., Global Migration: Old Assumptions, New Dynamics, Praeger, pp. 139-166
Publication year: 2015

The six states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) rank as the third largest migrant-receiving region in the world. They are the largest destination for migrants from India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Egypt, Jordan, or Yemen, which are themselves among the largest countries or origin of migrants.

Fargues_Venturini_2015

Introduction

Book Chapter
Fargues P. and A. Venturini 2015
Fargues & Venturini 2015, pp. 1-9.
Publication year: 2015

The countries of the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean (SEM) and those in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are crucial to the development of the world economy. Highly skilled migration to and from these regions is key to the recent socio-political transformations that have occurred across the world. Despite this, in the states concerned, skilled migration remains an underlying ‘issue of concern’, rather than at the top of political agendas, leading to a spectrum of unclear and uncoordinated legal and policy frameworks. Containing a series of thematic and country-specific overviews, this book highlights the specificity of each region, and identifies and analyses key demographic, economic, legal and political data – allowing for policy prescription. Skilled Migration, the ‘brain drain’, and its impact is an extensively debated phenomenon and this will be an essential companion for social scientists, policy-makers and development scholars.

Immigration vs. Population in the Gulf

Immigration vs. Population in the Gulf

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
L. Narbone (ed.) The Gulf Monarchies Beyond the Arab Spring. Changes and Challenges, EUI e-book, pp. 11-17
Publication year: 2015

The Gulf region has become an increasingly important international actor but many questions about the six monarchies of the Gulf Cooperation Council remain unanswered. In the aftermath of the Arab Spring, different domestic and international dynamics are at play and the changes in the geopolitics of the Middle East have transformed the regional policies of the states of the Gulf countries. In order to explore these complex issues, the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies of the European University Institute held a conference on ‘The Gulf region: domestic dynamics and global-regional perspectives. Implications for the EU’ (Florence, Italy, 20-21 April 2015). This E-book captures the range and diversity of the vibrant intellectual debate that took place during the conference. Contributors to this volume analyse the changes and challenges affecting the Gulf monarchies: from the sustainability of their economic model to the security threats arising from the crises in Yemen, Iraq and Syria, from demography and immigration policies to the politicization of sectarian identities, from the international opportunities arising from the new role of GCC states to the confrontation with Iran. This volume offers a range of insights into one of the less known partners of the European Union and provides a valuable reference both for academics and policy-makers.

Les migrations internationales en mal de gouvernance mondiale

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
H. Gherari et R. Mehdi (sous la direction de), La Société internationale face aux défis migratoires, Editions Pedone, Paris, pp. 7-19.
Publication year: 2012

GCC Demography and Immigration: Challenges and Policies

Book Chapter
Fargues P. and I. Brouwer
Steffen HERTOG (ed.), National Employment, Migration and Education in the GCC, Cambridge, [Berlin], Gerlach Press, 2012, The Gulf Region, [4], 241-273
Publication year: 2012

Demography, Migration and Revolt in the South of the Mediterranean

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
Cesare MERLINI and Olivier ROY (eds), Arab Society in Revolt: The West's Mediterranean Challenge, Washington, Brookings Institution Press, 2012, 17-46
Publication year: 2012

The book is the output of the project on ‘The Mediterranean Microcosm in the Broader Relationship Between the West and the Arab-Muslim World’ conducted by IAI in cooperation with the Center for the US and Europe (CUSE) of the Brookings Institution, in Washington and the Robert Schuman Centre (RSC) of the European University Institute (EUI), in Florence.

Croissance et mutations démographiques au XXe siècle

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
Vincent BATTESTI and François IRETON (eds), L’Egypte au présent, inventaire d’une société avant révolution, Paris, Sindbad-Actes Sud, 2011, La bibliothèque arabe, 41-74
Publication year: 2011

Emerging Demographic Patterns across the Mediterranean and their Implications for Migration through 2030

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
Bertelsmann Stiftung & Migration Policy Institute, Talent, Competitiveness and Migration, The Transatlantic Council on Migration, Gütersloh, Bertelsmann Stiftung, 2009, 129-162
Publication year: 2009

The demographic benefit of international migration : hypothesis and application to Middle Eastern and North African contexts

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
Çağlar ÖZDEN and Maurice SCHIFF (eds), International migration, economic development and policy, Washington, DC : World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, pp. 161-182
Publication year: 2007

The view that international migration has no impact on the size of world population is a sensible one. But the author argues, migration from developing to more industrial countries during the past decades may have resulted in a smaller world population than the one which would have been attained had no international migration taken place for two reasons: most of recent migration has been from high to low birth-rate countries, and migrants typically adopt and send back to their home countries models and ideas that prevail in host countries. Thus, migrants are potential agents of the diffusion of demographic modernity, that is, the reduction of birth rates among nonmigrant communities left behind in origin countries. This hypothesis is tested with data from Morocco and Turkey where most emigrants are bound for the West, and Egypt where they are bound for the Gulf. The demographic differentials encountered through migration in these three countries offer contrasted situations-host countries are either more (the West) or less (the Gulf) advanced in their demographic transition than the home country. Assuming migration changes the course of demographic transition in origin countries, the author posits that it should work in two opposite directions-speeding it up in Morocco and Turkey and slowing it down in Egypt. Empirical evidence confirms this hypothesis. Time series of birth rates and migrant remittances (reflecting the intensity of the relationship kept by emigrants with their home country) are strongly correlated with each other. Correlation is negative for Morocco and Turkey, and positive for Egypt. This suggests that Moroccan and Turkish emigration to Europe has been accompanied by a fundamental change of attitudes regarding marriage and birth, while Egyptian migration to the Gulf has not brought home innovative attitudes in this domain, but rather material resources for the achievement of traditional family goals. Other data suggest that emigration has fostered education in Morocco and Turkey but not in Egypt. And as has been found in the literature, education is the single most important determinant of demographic transition among nonmigrant populations in migrants’ regions of origin. Two broader conclusions are drawn. First, the acceleration of the demographic transition in Morocco and Turkey is correlated with migration to Europe, a region where low birth-rates is the dominant pattern. This suggests that international migration may have produced a global demographic benefit under the form of a relaxation of demographic pressures for the world as a whole. Second, if it turns out that emigrants are conveyors of new ideas in matters related with family and education, then the same may apply to a wider range of civil behavior.

Policy responses in MENA countries of transit for migrants: an analytical framework for policy-making

Book Chapter
Cassarino J.-P. and Fargues, P.
Ninna NYBERG SORENSEN (ed.), Mediterranean Transit Migration, DIIS, Copenhagen, 2006, 101-107
Publication year: 2006

Reappraising Migration on the EU-Turkey Agenda

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
N. TOCCI (ed), A. EVIN (ed), Towards Accession Negotiations: Turkey's Domestic and Foreign Policy Challenges Ahead, EUI-RSCAS, 2004
Publication year: 2004

Terminating Marriage

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
Nicholas S. HOPKINS (ed), The New Arab Family , 2003, 247-272, Cairo Papers in Social Sciences, Vol 24/1-2
Publication year: 2003

Population Studies

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
S. Joseph (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures, Brill, Leiden-Boston, pp. 321-25.
Publication year: 2003

L’Egypte au XXe siècle

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
Jean-Claude CHASTELAND and Jean-Claude CHESNAIS (eds), La population du Monde. Géants démographiques et défis internationaux , 2003, 171-196, Cahier de l’INED, No 149
Publication year: 2003

Family and Household in Mid-Nineteenth Century Cairo

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
Beshara DOUMANI (ed), Family History in the Middle East: Household, Property and Gender , 2003, 23-49
Publication year: 2003

Les conséquences démographiques de l’application du droit au retour

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
F. Mardam-Bey & E. Sanbar (sous la direction de), Le Droit au Retour. Le problème des réfugiés palestiniens, Sindbad – Actes Sud, Paris, pp. 347-73
Publication year: 2002

La démographie et la Méditerranée, ou les faits contre les représentations

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
E. Kienle (sous la direction de) La reconstruction politique d’un espace d’échanges : la Méditerranée, Dossiers du CEDEJ, le Caire, 2000 : 53-71.
Publication year: 2000

Voisinage et frontière : résider au Caire en 1846

Book Chapter
Fargues, P. & G. Alleaume
J. Dakhlia (Edited by), Urbanité arabe, Hommage à Bernard Lepetit, Actes Sud, Paris, pp. 77-112.
Publication year: 1998

The Arab Christians of the Middle East : a Demographic Perspective

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
A. Pacini (ed) Christian Communities in the Arab Middle East, Carendon Press, Oxford & New York 1998, pp. 48-66.
Publication year: 1998

I cristiani arabi dell'Oriente : una prospettiva demografica

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
Comunità cristiane nell'Islam arabo, la sfida del futuro, A cura di A. Pacini, Edizioni Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli, Torino, 1996, pp. 55-74. English version The Arab Christians of the Middle East : a Demographic Perspective in A. Pacini (ed) Christian Communities in the Arab Middle East, Carendon Press, Oxford & New York 1998, pp. 48-66.
Publication year: 1998

L’urbanizzazione del mondo arabo: il punto di vista demografico

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
Città e società nel mono arabo contemporaneo. Dinamiche urbane e cambimento sociale, Edizioni Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli, Torino, pp. 45-68 (1997).
Publication year: 1997

Les données démographiques de la paix au Proche-Orient

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
Ibid., Vol. II, pp. 61-90.
Publication year: 1995

Changing hierarchies of gender and generation in the Arab World

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
Family, Gender and Population Policy: Middle-Eastern Realities, edited by Carla Obermeyer, AUC Press & Columbia University Press, Cairo & New York, 1995, pp. 179-198.
Publication year: 1995

Violence politique et démographie en Égypte

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
Le phénomène de la violence politique: Perspectives comparatistes et paradigme égyptien, Dossiers du CEDEJ, Cairo, 1994, pp. 223-243
Publication year: 1994

Démographie de guerre, démographie de paix

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
Ghassan Salamé, Proche-Orient, les exigences de la paix, Editions Complexe, Paris,1994, pp. 21-41.
Publication year: 1994

Demographic explosion or social upheaval ?

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
Democracy without Democrats ?, edited by Ghassan Salamé, I.B. Tauris, London, 1994, pp. 155-181. French Edition: Explosion démographique ou rupture sociale, in Démocraties sans démocrates ?, Fayard, Paris, 1994, pp. 163-197. Arabic Edition, Beirut, 1995.
Publication year: 1994

Indirect Measures of maternal mortality

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
Measurement of maternal and child mortality, morbidity and health care: interdisciplinary approaches, edited by Ian Ties Boerma, Ed. Ordina, Liège, 1993, pp. 175-200.
Publication year: 1993

Seasonal variation in urban mortality

Book Chapter
Fargues P.
Etienne Van deWalle and Gilles Pison (ed.), Mortality and Society in Africa, Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 99-123.
Publication year: 1992