Publication Types:

Mass migration and uprisings in the Arab countries: An analytical framework

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
International Development Policy online journal Vol. 7/1 2017
Publication year: 2017

Who’s Been Left Behind? Why Sustainable Development Goals Fail the Arab World

Journal Articles
Fargues P., El-Zein A., DeJong J., Salti N., Hanieh A., Lackner H
The Lancet
Publication year: 2016

A set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) was adopted by the UN General Assembly in September, 2015. The Arab world, alongside other regions, has problems of poverty, poor health, and substantial environmental degradation—ie, the kind of problems that the SDGs aim to address. Evidence of persistent infectious disease in low-income and middle-income Arab countries exists, alongside increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases in all Arab countries, high out-of-pocket health expenditure, poor access to safe water, as well as violent conflict, persistent foreign interventions, and high levels of social and political fragmentation that result in weak health systems and diminished rights to health.

Un million de migrants arrivés sans visa en Europe en 2015 : Qui sont-ils ?

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Population et Sociétés, n° 532, INED, Paris, 4 p,
Publication year: 2016

International Migration and the Nation State in Arab Countries

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Middle East Law and Governance 5 (2013) 5–35
Publication year: 2016

International migration and the nation state have had, in all times and in all places, a difficult relationship. While the nation state is a community that recognises itself as one people sharing one territory and one narrative, international migrants are perceived as transgressors to the founding principle of the nation: emigrants, because they live outside the territory of which they still share the narrative; immigrants, because they are not yet part of the narrative attached to the territory in which they are newcomers. This article will, firstly, recall how Arab emigration in the age of nation-states has created an expatriate population that keeps links with its land of origin. It will show how states have shifted from disinterest and even distrust towards expatriates, to envisioning them as economic resources for national development and construction. The article will describe how development and security advantages, as compared with their African or Asian neighbours, have turned Arab states into receivers of new waves of international migrants and refugees, including a small minority of transit migrants stranded on their way to Europe, which some of them will reach clandestinely. While labour markets and, to a certain extent, societies are open to newcomers, Arab nation sta

Introduction, special issue on Migration in the Gulf States: Issues and Prospects

Journal Articles
36. Shah, N. & P. Fargues
Asian and Pacific Migration Journal 20 (3-4): 267-272.
Publication year: 2011

Immigration without Inclusion: Non-Nationals in Nation-Building in the Gulf States

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Asian and Pacific Migration Journal 20 (3-4): 273-292
Publication year: 2011

Migrants represent between one-third and four-fifths of the population in the Gulf States. Despite their sizable numbers, migrants can only have temporary residency, they have no access to citizenship, and they have limited membership in society, conditions which are unique to the Gulf States as destination countries. The first section argues that non-nationals have been instrumental in shaping the social link between nationals, and the relationship between them and their rulers. The second section shows how oil-generated wealth has allowed demographic growth through high fertility among nationals, and high immigration among non-nationals through high immigration. The faster growth among non-nationals has produced societies with a continuously shrinking proportion of nationals. Indeed, while policies of not allowing immigrants’ integration in the citizenry have worked well, policies aiming at reducing dependency on foreign workers through indigenizing the workforce and those limiting their duration of stay have not been successful. The exceptional demography of the Gulf States is not explained by an exceptional level of immigration as much as by an exceptional closure of local societies.

Migration et identité: le paradoxe des influences réciproques

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Esprit n°361 (janvier 2010), Paris: 6-16.
Publication year: 2010

Work, Refuge, Transit: An Emerging Pattern of Irregular Immigration South and East of the Mediterranean

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
International Migration Review, Vol. 43, No. 3 (Fall 2009):544–577
Publication year: 2009

Southern and Eastern Mediterranean (SEM) countries have recently turned into receivers of migrants, but they have neither the institutions nor the policies that would allow them to integrate migrants. Therefore, most migrants in SEM countries found themselves in irregular situation. Using a variety of statistical sources, official and non-official, the article establishes that out of 5.6 million immigrants living in SEM countries in the mid-2000s, a minimum of 3.6 would be in irregular situation. They belong to three categories: approximately 2 million migrant workers attracted by SEM labour markets where they are employed in the informal sector with no work permit, 1.5 million de facto refugees who cannot obtain the status of refugee and are waiting for resettlement in a third country or return to their homes, and less than 200,000 transit migrants initially bound for Europe, which they are unable to reach for lack of visa. While their reasons to be stranded in the SEM differ, these three categories share the same vulnerable conditions, with no legal access to work, services, or protection.

Afrique du Nord et Moyen-Orient : des migrations en quête d’une politique

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
n° spécial 1936-2006, 4/2006 : 1017-29.
Publication year: 2006

La distinction pays émetteurs/pays récepteurs tend à s’effacer au sud de la Méditerranée. Si les pays pétroliers deviennent plus restrictifs vis-à-vis de l’immigration, nombre d’autres pays doivent se transformer en pays d’accueil, ou de transit, d’une immigration mondialisée. Partout se pose donc le problème des politiques nécessaires : au niveau international pour réunir les questions de l’émigration et de l’immigration, au niveau national pour intégrer les populations nouvelles.

Women in Arab countries: challenging the patriarchal system?

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Reproductive Health Matters, Vol. 13, Number 25:161-5.
Publication year: 2005

Progress in the empowerment of Arab women was found to be low in a 2002 report. Yet Arab women’s status is not reflected in continuing high fertility, which in 2000 had dropped sharply in one generation to 3.4. This paper discusses why fertility decline could nevertheless have taken place in the Arab countries. Islam has not stood in the way of fertility decline, as Iran and Algeria show. From the mid- 1970s to 1980s, subsidised consumption through oil wealth redistribution reduced the cost of children, and social conservatism kept married women out of the labour force, both of which promoted higher fertility. The early stages of fertility decline were mainly due to longer length of education of girls, rising female age at first marriage, e.g. 28 in urban Morocco and 29 in Libya, and entry into the labour force of young, single women. There is also a growing population sub-group of never-married young women. Collapsing oil prices and structural adjustment reduced household resources and became an effective fertility regulation factor. Girls born since the 1950s have not only been educated longer than their mothers, but also their fathers, which increases their authority. These factors, and women’s activism and civil and political lobbying for the reform of personal status now underway in a number of Arab countries, could all challenge the patriarchal system. /// D’après un rapport de 2002, les femmes arabes progressent lentement vers l’autonomisation. Pourtant, leur statut ne va pas de pair avec le maintien d’une fécondité élevée: en une génération, celle-ci a été ramenée à 3,4 en 2000. L’Islam n’a pas fait obstacle au déclin de la fécondité, ainsi que le montrent l’Iran et l’Algérie. À partir de la moitié des années 70 et pendant les années 80, les subventions à la consommation provenant de la redistribution des revenus pétroliers ont réduit le coût de l’éducation des enfants, et le conservatisme social a maintenu les femmes mariées à la maison, deux mesures qui ont stimulé la fécondité. La fécondité a commencé à diminuer principalement du fait de l’allongement des études des filles, ce qui a retardé l’âge du premier mariage, par exemple 28 ans pour les Marocaines urbaines et 29 pour les Libyennes, et l’entrée sur le marché de l’emploi des célibataires. Les jeunes célibataires sont aussi plus nombreuses. La chute des prix pétroliers et l’ajustement structurel ont régulé efficacement la fécondité. Les filles nées depuis les années 50 sont plus instruites que leur mère, mais aussi que leur père, ce qui accroît leur autorité. Ces facteurs, ainsi que l’activisme des femmes et les pressions pour la réforme du statut personnel en cours dans plusieurs pays arabes pourraient saper le système patriarcal. /// En un informe del 2002 se encontraron muy pocos avances en la empoderación de las mujeres árabes. No obstante, el estatus de las mujeres árabes no se refleja en la continua fertilidad elevada, que en 2000 había disminuido marcadamente a 3.4 en una generación. En este artículo se examinan las causas de esta disminución en los países árabes. Islam no ha obstaculizado el descenso de la fertilidad, como se observa en Irán y Argelia. Desde mediados de los años setenta hasta los ochenta, el consumo subsidiado mediante la redistribución de la riqueza petrolera redujo el costo de tener hijos, y el conservadurismo social mantuvo a las mujeres casadas fuera de la fuerza de trabajo; ambos factores promovieron una fertilidad elevada. Las etapas iniciales de la disminución de la fertilidad se debieron principalmente a una duración más larga de la educación de las niñas, un ascenso en la edad de las mujeres al primer matrimonio, p. ej., 28 en Marruecos urbano y 29 en Libia, y la entrada de las mujeres jóvenes solteras en la fuerza de trabajo. Existe, además, un creciente subgrupo demográfico de mujeres jóvenes que nunca se han casado. Los bajos precios del petróleo y el ajuste estructural disminuyeron los recursos hogareños y constituyen un factor eficaz en la regulación de la fertilidad. Las niñas nacidas a partir de los años cincuenta han recibido una educación más larga que ambos padres, lo cual aumenta su autoridad. Estos factores, y el activismo y cabildeo civil y político de las mujeres con el fin de reformar su estatus personal, actualmente en curso en varios países árabes, podrían retar el sistema patriarcal.

Women in Arab countries: challenging the patriarchal system?

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Reproductive Health Matters, Vol. 13, Number 25:161-5
Publication year: 2005

Progress in the empowerment of Arab women was found to be low in a 2002 report. Yet Arab women’s status is not reflected in continuing high fertility, which in 2000 had dropped sharply in one generation to 3.4. This paper discusses why fertility decline could nevertheless have taken place in the Arab countries. Islam has not stood in the way of fertility decline, as Iran and Algeria show. From the mid- 1970s to 1980s, subsidised consumption through oil wealth redistribution reduced the cost of children, and social conservatism kept married women out of the labour force, both of which promoted higher fertility. The early stages of fertility decline were mainly due to longer length of education of girls, rising female age at first marriage, e.g. 28 in urban Morocco and 29 in Libya, and entry into the labour force of young, single women. There is also a growing population sub-group of never-married young women. Collapsing oil prices and structural adjustment reduced household resources and became an effective fertility regulation factor. Girls born since the 1950s have not only been educated longer than their mothers, but also their fathers, which increases their authority. These factors, and women’s activism and civil and political lobbying for the reform of personal status now underway in a number of Arab countries, could all challenge the patriarchal system. /// D’après un rapport de 2002, les femmes arabes progressent lentement vers l’autonomisation. Pourtant, leur statut ne va pas de pair avec le maintien d’une fécondité élevée: en une génération, celle-ci a été ramenée à 3,4 en 2000. L’Islam n’a pas fait obstacle au déclin de la fécondité, ainsi que le montrent l’Iran et l’Algérie. À partir de la moitié des années 70 et pendant les années 80, les subventions à la consommation provenant de la redistribution des revenus pétroliers ont réduit le coût de l’éducation des enfants, et le conservatisme social a maintenu les femmes mariées à la maison, deux mesures qui ont stimulé la fécondité. La fécondité a commencé à diminuer principalement du fait de l’allongement des études des filles, ce qui a retardé l’âge du premier mariage, par exemple 28 ans pour les Marocaines urbaines et 29 pour les Libyennes, et l’entrée sur le marché de l’emploi des célibataires. Les jeunes célibataires sont aussi plus nombreuses. La chute des prix pétroliers et l’ajustement structurel ont régulé efficacement la fécondité. Les filles nées depuis les années 50 sont plus instruites que leur mère, mais aussi que leur père, ce qui accroît leur autorité. Ces facteurs, ainsi que l’activisme des femmes et les pressions pour la réforme du statut personnel en cours dans plusieurs pays arabes pourraient saper le système patriarcal. /// En un informe del 2002 se encontraron muy pocos avances en la empoderación de las mujeres árabes. No obstante, el estatus de las mujeres árabes no se refleja en la continua fertilidad elevada, que en 2000 había disminuido marcadamente a 3.4 en una generación. En este artículo se examinan las causas de esta disminución en los países árabes. Islam no ha obstaculizado el descenso de la fertilidad, como se observa en Irán y Argelia. Desde mediados de los años setenta hasta los ochenta, el consumo subsidiado mediante la redistribución de la riqueza petrolera redujo el costo de tener hijos, y el conservadurismo social mantuvo a las mujeres casadas fuera de la fuerza de trabajo; ambos factores promovieron una fertilidad elevada. Las etapas iniciales de la disminución de la fertilidad se debieron principalmente a una duración más larga de la educación de las niñas, un ascenso en la edad de las mujeres al primer matrimonio, p. ej., 28 en Marruecos urbano y 29 en Libia, y la entrada de las mujeres jóvenes solteras en la fuerza de trabajo. Existe, además, un creciente subgrupo demográfico de mujeres jóvenes que nunca se han casado. Los bajos precios del petróleo y el ajuste estructural disminuyeron los recursos hogareños y constituyen un factor eficaz en la regulación de la fertilidad. Las niñas nacidas a partir de los años cincuenta han recibido una educación más larga que ambos padres, lo cual aumenta su autoridad. Estos factores, y el activismo y cabildeo civil y político de las mujeres con el fin de reformar su estatus personal, actualmente en curso en varios países árabes, podrían retar el sistema patriarcal.

Arab Migration to Europe: Trends and Policies

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
International Migration Review,. Winter 2004, Vol. 38, No. 4: 1348-71
Publication year: 2004

Growing Arab migration to Europe is a likely scenario for the coming years, poorly prepared for by current policies. The paper examines three reasons for this scenario: new patterns of family-building in Arab countries; aging in Europe; and the emergence of a new demand for migrant labor. While the ongoing establishment of free trade may increase migratory pressures, government policies remain potentially conflicting — on the Arab side, optimizing the economic benefits drawn from emigrants and reviving their sense of belonging to their culture of origin; on the European side, restricting further immigration and integrating former migrants in the host society and culture.

La femme dans les pays arabes : vers une remise en cause du système patriarcal ?

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Population et Sociétés n°387, INED, Paris, 4 p
Publication year: 2003
The stark picture of human development in the Arab world painted in a report written for the United Nations by leading Arab researchers became the subject of impassioned debate in late summer 2002. They found that it was being seriously undermined by failings on three fronts: civil and political freedom, knowledge production and dissemination, and empowerment of women [1]. All—but especially the latter— are seen as the main factors of demographic transition, especially fertility reduction. Women’s status, therefore, should be reflected in continuing high fertility. But is that the case?

L’émigration en Europe vue d’Afrique du Nord et du Moyen-Orient

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Esprit n°300 : 125-43 (2003).
Publication year: 2003

Les guerres, facteur décisif de migrations

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Confluences Méditerranéennes n°42 :23-35
Publication year: 2002

Comprendre le monde arabe par la démographie

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Esprit, n°281 : 6-16
Publication year: 2002

La génération du changement

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Maghreb-Machrek, La Documentation Française, numéro spécial sous la direction de Fargues, P., Jeunesse du monde arabe : défis et opportunité , vol. 171-2 : 3-11.
Publication year: 2001

Jeunesse du monde arabe : défis et opportunités

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Maghreb-Machrek, La Documentation Française, vol. 171-2, 124p.
Publication year: 2001

Demographic Islamization: Non-Muslims in Muslim Countries

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
SAIS Review, The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, Washington, vol. XXI/2, Summer-Fall 2001 : 103-116.
Publication year: 2001

Protracted National Conflict and Fertility : Palestinians and Israelis in the Twentieth Century

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Population and Development Review, The Population Council, New York, vol. 26, n°3 : 441-482.
Publication year: 2000

, La Possibile Influenza Del Contesto Demografico Sulla Mobilità Del Fattore Umano: Un’analisi Per Generazioni

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Rivista Italiana di Economia, Demografia e Statistica, Vol LIV, n°3 : 131-159
Publication year: 2000

Population Dilemmas in the Arab World

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
A review of Gad Gilbar Population and Development Review, The Population Council, New York, vol. 25, n°1, 1999, pp. 177-180.
Publication year: 1999

Des cartes dans quel jeu ? Les accords israélo-palestiniens et la démographie

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Revue d’Études Palestiniennes Vol [75]23, pp.53-64 + 5 cartes.
Publication year: 1999

La naissance d'une statistique d'État : le recensement de 1846 en Égypte

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Histoire et mesure, XIII-1/2, Paris, pp. 147-193.
Publication year: 1998

La montée du chômage en Égypte (1960-1995)

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Égypte / Monde Arabe n°33, 1998, le Caire, pp. 147-179.
Publication year: 1998

State Policies and the Birth Rate in Egypt: from Socialism to Liberalism

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Population and Development Review, The Population Council, New York, vol. 23/1:115-138.
Publication year: 1997

L'Urbanisation du monde arabe: paradoxes démographiques

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Égypte/Monde Arabe, Cairo, 1995, n°22, pp. 43-62.
Publication year: 1995

Demography and politics in the Arab world

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Population. An English Selection, INED, Paris, vol. 5, 1995, pp. 1-20, Démographie et politique dans le monde arabe, Population, INED, Paris, volume 47, n°2, 1992, pp. 305-326.
Publication year: 1995

La diffusion de l'instruction scolaire d'après les recensements égyptiens

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Egypte/Monde Arabe , Cairo, n°18-19, pp. 115-134.
Publication year: 1994

From Demographic Explosion to Social Rupture

Journal Articles
Fargues P.
Middle East Report, n°190, Washington, Sept-Oct 1994, pp. 6-10.
Publication year: 1994